Water treatment is extremely important as contaminated water leads to several ailments which can eventually be fatal. Water purification becomes a necessity, even if the water that you drink at home hasn’t yet made you feel sick. Read on to find out more about home based purification.
Poor sanitation and bad hygiene lead to almost four billion cases of waterborne disease worldwide, annually, resulting in around 1.5 billion cases of death. To check it, measures should be taken at home as well. There are many simple methods for water processing at home level. Some of them are discussed below.
This is the most widespread and broadly used method in a home other than boiling. The source of chlorine can vary from chlorinated lime to sodium hypochlorite. Even chlorine tablets or high test hypochlorites can be used for chlorine treatment. The sodium hypochlorite comes in liquid form in bottles with instructions about the dosage mentioned. The dosage is very important here because a very less amount will not purify water and more will be harmful for the health. With a dosage of few mg per litre and standing time 30 minutes, 99.99% of enteric pathogens can be eradicated.
This process gives us many advantages over the other technologies. It can operate under diverse conditions, including temperature, pH and turbidity. This method does not involve any chemical which would alter the odor and taste of water. Most importantly, it is a very convenient method. High quality ceramics with bacteriostatic silver coating can remove 99.9% protozoa and 99.9999% bacteria. Filtration is done by Sand filter or bio-sand filter. Among these bio-sand filter is specially designed for intermittent use and is preferred for the household application.
FLOCCULATION AND DISINFECTIONM
High turbidity is the most challenging thing when it comes to home based water treatment. It is necessary to remove turbidity as solids can use up free chlorine and block UV radiation which is necessary for solar disinfection. Though sedimentation can settle down the impurities, leaving clear water above, the coagulating or flocculating substance such as alum, are used to make the process faster. Flocculation alone cannot prevent total microbial growth, so disinfection is necessary. Sachets with flocculating substance mixed with disinfectant are available in the market to carry out the purification at home. These combinations can kill up to 99% water cysts, 99.99% viruses and 99.9999% bacteria.
BOILING AND SOLAR DISINFECTION
Boiling water with fuel is one of the oldest and most effective methods of water purification. This removes the microbes fully regardless of the turbidity. WHO states that 1 min of rolling boiling the water at high temperature or heating water for a few minutes at pasteurization temperature i.e. 60 degrees Celsius can also deactivate most of the pathogens. Solar disinfection is another way of purifying water. Solar disinfection combines thermal and UV radiation, which effectively kills microbial pathogens. This process is reported to reduce epidemic cholera and diarrhoeal morbidity. There are many ways to carry out the process, but Sodis system is the most convenient and practical practice of them all. The method includes storing low turbid water in clear plastic bottles and exposing them to the sun. Exposure time varies from 6-48 hours depending on the intensity of light. To carry out this process, one must have enough number of bottles as water has to be stored in the treated bottle till it is consumed.
Through these processes, you can ensure that the water you drink at home is pure and safe.
About the Author
Kea Jones is a New York based columnist who likes to write about various buzz and current affairs in the business world. Besides that she is actively writing reviews for various new local business houses, products and services. Follow her on Twitter @KeaJones05